Read the text quickly and find the paragraphs that contain the answer to each of these questions
¯ Why are several courses recommended for ships?
¯ What landmarks are used to show the direction of approach?
¯ What line may lead the ship clear of dangers?
¯ What is understood by a leading line?
Are the statements true or false?
1) The navigator guides by special instructions only when approaching to some ports.
2) Directions will help the ship to avoid dangers and choose the correct course.
3) Lighthouses, water towers, summits of mountain, lights on some constructions can be the necessary landmarks.
4) Three conspicuous objects brought in line from seaward may lead the ship clear of dangerous into the port.
Grammar: The Passive
Look at these sentences. They are in the passive voice.
The navigator should be guided by special instructions
These instructions are given in the form of recommendations.
When do we use the Passive Voice? Find the examples of Passive voice in the text, read the example. What is the aim to use the Passive Voice?
Choose the right variant of the verbs:
uses/is usedthe directions to pass through narrow channels.
give/ are givenin the form of recommendations.
3) Conspicuous landmarks
use/ are usedto show the direction of approach to some place.
4) Directions may/may not refer to the effect of wind, tidal stream, currents, character of bottom, etc.
Ask questions using the model:
Model:On account of the tidal eddies this is not recommended.
For what reason is this entrance not recommended?
1) Owing to shoals this course is not recommended on account.
2) On account of reefs passage through this channel is not advisable.
3) Owing to contrary winds entering this bay is not advisable.
Complete the words to have meaningful expressions and use them in your own sentences:
Fill in the blanks with missing words given below.alter, bound, distinguished, until, use, bear, making, care avoid, caution, vicinity, steer
1) When …for the entrance to the inner harb our…must be taken to avoid the 2-fathom patch.
2) ….should be exercised in the …of S point on account of the dangerous vertical seas.
3) Small vessels entering B. bay may…the narrow passage.
4) …for Port V, form northward, bring S. to bear about 1260and …for it.
5) The harbor is not easily…at a distance.
Read the extracts form the pilot Books.
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